Automate those apps. Get some robot love 🤖 ❤️!

If only one person needs an application then I think about using Munki to deploy that app. If more than one person should have it then Munki is definitely the way to automate app deployment. And really, if you’re going to take the time to download an app from a website, mount a disk image or un-pack a ZIP archive, run an installer, type an admin password, close that installer … then for the love of all that is good just put the app into your Munki repo and be done with it. Automate it.

Using Munki to solve problems makes sense. Automation helps everyone in this case. But if you’re putting in one off applications into your Munki repo more often than you need to, you need to get those apps into Autopkg. Using Autopkg recipes to download the latest apps and put them into your Munki repo automatically is an automation love fest, but if your apps don’t have recipes what are you going to do? Manually add your apps to Munki? No way. We need a robot 🤖❤️. Recipe robot, that is.

Using Recipe Robot we can build Autopkg recipes for most apps then add the recipes to the Autopkg community to enjoy. Everyone wins.

I recently created recipes for two important apps in my media workflow: Kyno and Hedge. I’ll show an example of this workflow using Recipe Robot and Munki Admin to demonstrate the workflow.

Step 1. Feed the robot.

Drag and and drop the app you want to create your Autopkg recipes.

RecipeRobot-FeedMe

Step 2. Watch the robot do it’s work

RecipeRobot-start

Step 3. Robot is done. Recipes made.

RecipeRobot-Done

Various type of recipes can be made. I chose download and munki because those are what I am using to automate adding apps to my Munki repo. But there are other options: jss, Filewave, or “install” for example.

reciperobot-options.jpg

Step 4. Run those Recipes

You can use your recipes locally with Autopkg. Run them in Terminal or use Autopkgr , a very nice GUI app for automating the collection and scheduling of recipes. Note: Autopkg and Munki can all be run via cli (command line interface) but for this demo we are showing the GUI apps that are there provided by outstanding members of the community. Many Thanks to them and the contributors to their projects.

Autopkgr-notification

Autopkgr app can send notifications in macOS, emails, or post to your Slack group.

Step 5. See the recipes, Use them wisely

MunkiAdmin-Recently ChangedPKGS

Here is an example of newly imported Kyno and Hedge apps in our Munki repo (via Munki Admin GUI).

MunkiAdmin-Description

Add a display name, choose which catalogs the apps will reside in, and check that the description will help explain what the app is.

References:

Elliot Jordan – Autopkg talk at MacDevOps:YVR

https://youtu.be/Q_cvgGtJ71M

Elliot Jordan – Recipe Robot talk at MacDevOps:YVR

https://youtu.be/DgjO1mfMHtI

 

The case of the strange disappearing drive space

Recently I was asked to look at a 4TB drive that was only showing less than 2TB available…. No problem, I said, this is easy to fix. Famous last words.

Just open up Disk Utility and resize the partition, or reformat the disk, right? Easy Peasey. Well, it took some troubleshooting to time to figure out and a trip to Terminal was required to solve this weird case, plus I learned a new command along the way. Fun.

The Problem:

Buying a 4TB hard drive then putting it into your external drive case for backups should be simple,  but what if instead you got a nasty surprise and it showed up as less than 2TB?

Troubleshooting the issue:

4TB drives were presented to me and when I loaded them into an external SATA dock then showed as 4TB drives with a partitioned volume of less than 2TB.

I tried to delete the phantom partition, and I tried resize the volume to use the empty space in Disk Utility.app but it refused to budge. This needed a trip to Terminal.

man diskutil

Using “man” or “info” commands you can find out more about almost any particular command. Maybe some useful options or arguments would be listed or at least some examples would help.

NAME

     diskutil -- modify, verify and repair local disks

SYNOPSIS

     diskutil [quiet] verb [options]

DESCRIPTION

     diskutil manipulates the structure of local disks.  

 

To find out more about what we’re faced with let’s ask diskutil what it sees:

diskutil list
/dev/disk2 (external, physical):

   #:                       TYPE NAME           SIZE       IDENTIFIER

   0:      GUID_partition_scheme               *4.0 TB     disk2

   1:                    EFI                   209.7 MB   disk2s1

   2:        Apple_HFS Backup                  1.8 TB     disk2s2

Looking through the man page the “resizeVolume” command caught my eye. Also the “limits” option seemed interesting. How

diskutil resizeVolume disk2s2 limits

Resize limits for partition disk2s2 Backup:

  Current partition size on map:         1.8 TB (1801419800576 Bytes)

  Minimum (constrained by file usage):   846.4 MB (846426112 Bytes)

  Recommended minimum (if used for macOS):26.8 GB (26843545600 Bytes)

  Maximum (constrained by map space):   4.0 TB (4000442028032 Bytes)

The Answer:

Reading through the man page revealed that the best way, and new to me, was to resize the partition to use all available space with “R”. Of course, so intuitive.

sudo diskutil resizeVolume disk2s2 R

I did get some errors. But repairing the disk fixed those issues. And I was able to resize the disk in Terminal with diskutil where Disk Utility.app had failed.

sudo diskutil resizeVolume disk2s2 R

Resizing to full size (fit to fill)

Started partitioning on disk2s2 Backup

Verifying the disk

Verifying file system

Volume was successfully unmounted

Performing fsck_hfs -fn -x /dev/rdisk2s2

Checking Journaled HFS Plus volume

Checking extents overflow file

Checking catalog file

Checking multi-linked files

Checking catalog hierarchy

Checking extended attributes file

Checking volume bitmap

Checking volume information

The volume Backup appears to be OK

File system check exit code is 0

Restoring the original state found as mounted

Resizing

Modifying partition map

Growing file system

Finished partitioning on disk2s2 Backup

/dev/disk2 (external, physical):

   #:                       TYPE NAME          SIZE       IDENTIFIER

   0:      GUID_partition_scheme              *4.0 TB     disk2

   1:                        EFI             209.7 MB   disk2s1

   2:                  Apple_HFS Backup      4.0 TB     disk2s2

And lastly, the issue may have been caused by the old drive dock which refused to see the 4TB volumes even when correctly resized. A newer drive dock was required.

Zoom in on Privacy and Security

Recent attention on video conferencing app Zoom and security exploits brings attention to the various Privacy and Security settings on your Mac. Currently macOS 10.14.5 Mojave defines microphone and camera settings which should be verified periodically if they’re not being managed by MDM (mobile device management) and even in those case, just to verify.

Zoom update

If you’ve ever had Zoom installed you must launch it and then update it manually, unless you have Munki or other patching solution to manage your Mac.

 

Zoom Enable camera access

If you want Zoom to have access to your camera (useful for video conferencing) then enable it or leave it disabled until the moment you actually need it.

Privacy-Camera-OFF-Settings.pngMaybe this is a good time to review what apps have previously been granted access and disable them or not after you review the situation.

Privacy-MIC2-Settings.png

Check your microphone access as well. What apps are in your list?

Further research:

Check out Objective See’s excellent security tools such as Oversight to protect yourself from unwanted access to your camera.

Also check out this past talk at MacDevOps:YVR 2018 by Kolide’s Zach Wasserman about osquery and at the 11min mark where he talks about another app BlueJeans and how to investigate it with osquery.

The MacDevOps:YVR videos from past talks contain many security related talks as well as other awesome troubleshooting tech talks.

 

 

Use Munki to install a screensaver

Use munki-pkg to package up stuff and make your life easier when managing Macs using munki. Here is an example of installing a screensaver.

Why use munki-pkg? How else do you install stuff using munki, run scripts, and version your testing buildings all in one easy to use application? This is all possible with munki-pkg.

Munki-pkg makes package (PKG) installers, Munki likes pkg installers. Munki will also install apps, run scripts, install profiles, and do many things but packages are useful because we can put files in specific places, such as the main computer level screensaver folder, then run a script to set it as a default.

Download munki-pkg and create a working project folder.

Step 1.

Create the folders you need and place your files (payloads) in the right places.

munkipkg-payload.png

Step 2.

Create your post install script if you need one. Example: setting the screensaver you just installed as the default.

#!/bin/sh

defaults -currentHost write com.apple.screensaver moduleDict -dict moduleName Brooklyn path /System/Library/Screen\ Savers/Brooklyn.saver/ type 0

 

munkipkg-postinstall.png

Step 3. Build your package

Run munki-pkg on the command line and build your package. If you make changes then version up in your build-info.plist and build again.

munkipkg-build.png

 

 

Reset Printer Queue

TIL (thing I learned)

Had a user upgrade to macOS 10.14.1 and no printers showed up anymore.

So using my Google fu I found some posts (see one below) which described a novel way to reset the print queue on macOS. An old trick apparently. Learn something new everyday.

A quick trip to a terminal and it worked! The existing printers returned to System Preferences and printing resumed.

$ cancel -a

Reference

To install macOS Mojave, or not to?

InstallMojave

Just the other day macOS Mojave was released and now the armies of Macs armed only with the AppStore are silently downloading the installer and ready to upgrade. You can’t hurry too fast to be on the bleeding edge, hurry faster!

Just in case you don’t want everyone to install macOS 10.14.0 (dot zero!) in the first week of its release here’s a way to slow down the upgrade hordes using Erik Berglund’s AppBlocker script. Erik Berglund is also the author of ProfileCreator (for creating profiles) and the author of many other great scripts.

Note: for true binary whitelisting check out Google’s Santa project and Upvote (and Moroz and Zentral, two other Santa sync servers).

Step 1. Get it

Clone or download the AppBlocker project from GitHub

AppleBlockerProject.png

Step 2. Do it

Edit the AppBlocker.py script with the Bundle Identifier of your app to block, in this case for the Mojave installer from the AppStore it is:

com.apple.InstallAssistant.Mojave

You can also edit the alert message, and the icon that is shown, as well as decide if the blocked app should be deleted or not. The script is easy to edit in BBEdit, or nano (in Terminal). Use whatever your favorite text editor is to make the necessary changes.

# List of all blocked bundle identifiers. Can use regexes.
blockedBundleIdentifiers = ['com.apple.InstallAssistant.Mojave']

# Whether the blocked application should be deleted if launched
deleteBlockedApplication = False

# Whether the user should be alerted that the launched applicaion was blocked
alertUser = True

# Message displayed to the user when application is blocked
alertMessage = "The application \"{appname}\" has been blocked by IT"
alertInformativeText = "Contact your administrator for more information"

# Use a custom Icon for the alert. If none is defined here, the Python rocketship will be shown.
alertIconPath = "/System/Library/CoreServices/CoreTypes.bundle/Contents/Resources/Actions.icns"

UPDATED NOTE:

To determine the Bundle identifier of other applications you can use osascript

osascript -e 'id of app "iTunes"'
com.apple.iTunes

If you want to block more than one app use a comma separated list in the AppBlocker.py script:

['com.apple.InstallAssistant.Mojave','com.apple.iTunes']

 

Step 3. Run it

Put the script where you want to run it. The default location as defined in the launchd plist included with the app is “/usr/local/bin”. Put the launchd.plist in “/Library/LaunchDaemons/” and start up your launchd to block your apps!

launchctl load /Library/LaunchDaemons/com.github.erikberglund.AppBlocker.plist

Step 4. Automate it

For bonus points we automate! Bundle it all up in a package with munkipkg, then distribute it with Munki to all your clients.

Using munkipkg is easy. Create the folder using munkipkg

./munkipkg --create AppBlocker

munkipkg: Created new package project at AppBlocker

Then you fill the payload folders with those items you downloaded from the AppBlocker project. LauchD plist in the LaunchDaemons folder and AppBlocker.py in the “usr local bin” (create each nested folder).

AppBlocker-Munkipkg3.png

And finally create a post install script (no “.sh”) with the launchctl action to start your plist.

AppBlocker-Munkipkg4.png

Last but not least add this package to your Munki repo as an unattended managed install  that everyone gets. Of course, only do this after testing your package locally somewhere to verify that it works properly. Remember the saying: “You may not test very often, but when you do it’s always in production.” Be very careful with your testing but always automate all the things.

Updated after the initial blog post to explain how to add more than one app to block, and how to use osascript to determine the bundle identifier.

 

 

 

macOS Server is dead. Long live macOS.

Yes, it’s been a hot topic in the MacAdmin community both on Mac Enterprise list (oh no it’s the end of the world!) and MacAdmins Slack (told you it was coming, don’t be surprised).

My professional opinion is: “Don’t panic!”

My MacDevOps conference is all about supporting MacAdmins who have been writing code as infrastructure to manage Macs. And do it while replacing macOS Server in the server room with Linux and other OS.

Xsan is staying in macOS Server so I am happy and that’s my main use for the Mac Mini and macOS Server.

I have other Mac Minis doing file sharing for small work groups and moving that out of Server.app in the last revision was unfortunate (it is in the standard OS and usable there but less manageable). There’s also Synology and QNAP NAS for small workgroup file sharing and so much more And many enterprise storage vendors for larger setups.

Imaging has been dying a slow death for years and has been replaced with a thin or “no imaging” concept supported by tools such as AutoPkg and Munki.

Profile Manager is a demo version of MDM and should not be used to actually manage Macs.

Wikis, DNS and Mail should be hosted on Linux, in VMs, AWS, GCP or anywhere other than macOS Server so no problem.

Overall it might be disconcerting to some. But change is constant. And especially at Apple change comes fast and often. We have to get used to it.

Reference:

Apple Support article

Apple to Deprecate Many macOS Server Services – TidBITS http://tidbits.com/e/17760

macOS High Sierra vs Server.app

Upgrading to macOS High Sierra is akin to walking on the bridge of peril. Too perilous!

I don’t recommend macOS 10.13.x for production, but it is necessary to test and for this reason back in September I did upgrade my test Mac. Of course, when the installer detects server it will give you a warning about it not being compatible and you’ll have to download a compatible version from the App Store. Be warned!

ThisVersionOfServerNoLongerSupported2

Which is no big deal as long you are warned and have backups and maybe you can download the compatible version from the App Store. Trying to launch the old version will get you a warning to go to the App Store and be quick about it.

ThisVersionOfServerNoLongerSupported

Some people are reporting that the macOS installer is erasing their Server.app and refusing to upgrade their Server with the macOS 10.13 compatible version (v.5.4).

In that case, restore from Time Machine or other backups and start again?

Root Me Baby One More Time!

UPDATE: Apple has posted a security update. 2017-001

Root-a-pocalyse. Root down. Root a toot toot. Many funny tweets today about a very serious issue. A bug was discovered in macOS 10.13 that enabled anyone to login with a root account. With no password. Wow. Seriously. Yeah, that’s bad.

Bug discovered by Lemi Orhan Ergin.

I tested by clicking on the lock icon in System Preferences. Normally this requires an admin account. I was able to authenticate with “root” and no password. This actually also set root to no password. You can choose a password here and this makes it for you. How convenient. You can also login to the Mac via the login window. With root. And no password. Crazy.

If your Mac is off it’s safe. Not joking. If your FileVault protected drive is encrypted and your mac is turned off then you’re good. If you Mac is turned on and you’ve logged in at least once (or at least decrypted the drive on boot) then you’re not safe.

What can you do? Change the root password and set the shell to false. Until Apple fixes this. Should be anytime now. Or soon.

dscl . -passwd /Users/root “random or very secure password here”

dscl . -create /Users/root UserShell /usr/bin/false

Read a comprehensive explanation on Rich Trouton’s site:  Der Flounder blog

 

I don’t get High — Sierra!

Friends don’t let friends install macOS High Sierra in production. Don’t get High, Sierra.

macOS 10.13 was released on Sep 25, 2017, and almost two months later with only one point release update, it’s still too new for production. Download it on a test machine or two or more, test it with your apps and systems, file bug reports and radars, but for the love of all that is Python and Monty! don’t run it on your production Xsan. Well, at least not yet. Wait until next year. Or as long as you can. Or until the new iMac Pro is released with 10.13 pre-installed or wait until they ship the new Final Cut Pro X 10.4 that may or may not require macOS High Sierra.

With that out of the way, I’ve just upgraded the production Xsan to … macOS Sierra. Yes, macOS 10.12.6 is stable and it’s a good time to install last year’s macOS release. Time to say good bye to macOS el Capitan 10.11.6, we hardly knew ya. Besides guaranteed security updates, stability and the annoying newness of a changed macOS, what else is there? In Xsan v5 they introduced a new “ignore permissions” checkbox for your Xsan volumes. Looking forward to that feature in production. No more Munki onDemand nopkg scripts to run chmod. No more tech support requests for folders, files, FCP X projects that won’t open because someone else used it, owns it, touched it. We’ll see how that pans out. I’ll let you know.

Upgrading Xsan to v5

Step 1. Back up your data

You’re doing this, right? I’m using Archiware P5 Backup to backup the current projects to LTO tape. I’m using Archiware P5 sync to sync the current Xsan volumes to Thunderbolt RAIDs, and using Archiware P5 Archive (and Archive app) to archive completed projects to the LTO project archive. That’s all I need to do, right?

Step 2. Back up your servers

Don’t forget the servers running your SAN! I use Apple’s Time Machine to backup my Mac Mini Xsan controllers. External USB3 drive. I also use another Mac Mini in target disk mode with Carbon Copy Cloner to clone the server nightly. (Hat tip to Alex Narvey, a real Canadian hero). And of course I grab the Xsan config with hdiutil and all the logs with cvgather. Because, why not?! For Archiware P5 backup server I also have a python scripts to backup everything, another scripts to export a readable list of tapes, and BackupMinder to rotate the backups. Add some rsync scripts and you’re golden.

 

Step 3. Upgrade the OS

Unmount the Xsan volume on your clients or shut them down, disconnect the fibre channel. Do something like that. Stop your volume. Download the macOS Sierra installer from the App Store. Double click upgrade. Wait. Or use Munki. I loaded in the macOS 10.12.6 installer app into Munki and set it up as an optional install to make this portion of the upgrade much quicker and cleaner.

In my case after the OS was upgraded I checked the App Store app for any Apple updates (you can also use Munki’s Managed Software Center to check) and of course there were some security updates. In this case the security upgrade hung on a slow network connection and the server crashed. Server down! I had to restore from Time Machine backup to the point where I just upgraded the server. It took some extra time  but it worked (can’t wait for next year’s mature APFS / Time Machine and restoring from snapshots instead).

Step 4. Upgrade Server

After macOS is upgraded you’ll need to upgrade the Server.app or just upgrade the services used by Server (even those not used by Server get upgraded).

Step 5. Upgrade the Xsan

Bur first we have to restore the Xsan config. Don’t panic! It may invoke bad memories of data loss and restoring from backups. Xsan PTSD is real.

Restore-previous-Xsan.png

Step 6. Upgrade the rest

Next you have to upgrade the Xsan volumes.

Xsan-volume-needs-upgrade

New version of Xsan, ch-ch-changes! Ignore permissions check box will remount the xsan with the “no-owners” flag. Let’s test this out.

 

Upgrade the OS and Server app on the backup controller. Upgrade the OS on the clients using Munki or App Store if you like doing it the hard way. Ha Ha.

Step 7. Enjoy

Plug those Thunderbolt to Fibre adapters back in, mount those Xsan volumes and be happy.

Step 8. Wait for the complaints

The next day the editors walked in and went straight to work with Final Cut Pro X. No one noticed anything. Xsan upgraded. Workstation macOS upgraded. Everything appeared to be the same and just worked. Thankless task but well worth it.

 

Reference: Apple’s iBook guide here