Reset Printer Queue

TIL (thing I learned)

Had a user upgrade to macOS 10.14.1 and no printers showed up anymore.

So using my Google fu I found some posts (see one below) which described a novel way to reset the print queue on macOS. An old trick apparently. Learn something new everyday.

A quick trip to a terminal and it worked! The existing printers returned to System Preferences and printing resumed.

$ cancel -a

Reference

Blocking minor major macOS upgrades

Continuing our theme of welcoming our new macOS overlords, uh, I mean, blocking major macOS upgrades such as macOS 10.14 Mojave with AppBlock we shall examine some other methods of stopping the freight train known as Apple upgrades.

1) A smart person on the MacAdmins Slack posted a useful command to tell macOS not to download major upgrades.

In their testing, running:

`software update –ignore macOSInstallerNotification_GM`

blocks the installation of the Mojave notification package (at /Library/Bundles/OSXNotification.bundle).

However if it already installed, then it’s too late. They pushed out this command prior to that package being distributed by Apple, and they could subsequently see in install.log that the update is being found by softwareupdated but not being installed.

2) If you missed the chance to tell the Mac not to download major macOS upgrades then Rick Heil on his blog has detailed a way using munki to delete the bundle that triggers the macOS upgrade installer.

3) App Block

If your users are intent or their computers are all hell bent on downloading the install app then block it with App block detailed in my previously mentioned blog post

4) Warning

In an effort to get an early warning when users are about to upgrade I use Watchman Monitoring to send me an alert email when a Mac starts downloading the Install macOS app. Sometimes it’s enough of a warning to send an email to a user to ask them whether it is a good idea to upgrade at this time. If storage or software needed for production or backups aren’t qualified or tested thoroughly beforehand then upgrading in the early waves can be less than ideal and frought with peril.

In other interesting and related news, Victor (MicroMDM) was spelunking into the MDM Protocol for what prompts Macs like iOS devices to download major updates. Great post here

If you have any better ways to block macOS upgrades or want to contribute some great solutions let me know. Cheers

 

 

 

 

To install macOS Mojave, or not to?

InstallMojave

Just the other day macOS Mojave was released and now the armies of Macs armed only with the AppStore are silently downloading the installer and ready to upgrade. You can’t hurry too fast to be on the bleeding edge, hurry faster!

Just in case you don’t want everyone to install macOS 10.14.0 (dot zero!) in the first week of its release here’s a way to slow down the upgrade hordes using Erik Berglund’s AppBlocker script. Erik Berglund is also the author of ProfileCreator (for creating profiles) and the author of many other great scripts.

Note: for true binary whitelisting check out Google’s Santa project and Upvote (and Moroz and Zentral, two other Santa sync servers).

Step 1. Get it

Clone or download the AppBlocker project from GitHub

AppleBlockerProject.png

Step 2. Do it

Edit the AppBlocker.py script with the Bundle Identifier of your app to block, in this case for the Mojave installer from the AppStore it is:

com.apple.InstallAssistant.Mojave

You can also edit the alert message, and the icon that is shown, as well as decide if the blocked app should be deleted or not. The script is easy to edit in BBEdit, or nano (in Terminal). Use whatever your favorite text editor is to make the necessary changes.

# List of all blocked bundle identifiers. Can use regexes.
blockedBundleIdentifiers = ['com.apple.InstallAssistant.Mojave']

# Whether the blocked application should be deleted if launched
deleteBlockedApplication = False

# Whether the user should be alerted that the launched applicaion was blocked
alertUser = True

# Message displayed to the user when application is blocked
alertMessage = "The application \"{appname}\" has been blocked by IT"
alertInformativeText = "Contact your administrator for more information"

# Use a custom Icon for the alert. If none is defined here, the Python rocketship will be shown.
alertIconPath = "/System/Library/CoreServices/CoreTypes.bundle/Contents/Resources/Actions.icns"

UPDATED NOTE:

To determine the Bundle identifier of other applications you can use osascript

osascript -e 'id of app "iTunes"'
com.apple.iTunes

If you want to block more than one app use a comma separated list in the AppBlocker.py script:

['com.apple.InstallAssistant.Mojave','com.apple.iTunes']

 

Step 3. Run it

Put the script where you want to run it. The default location as defined in the launchd plist included with the app is “/usr/local/bin”. Put the launchd.plist in “/Library/LaunchDaemons/” and start up your launchd to block your apps!

launchctl load /Library/LaunchDaemons/com.github.erikberglund.AppBlocker.plist

Step 4. Automate it

For bonus points we automate! Bundle it all up in a package with munkipkg, then distribute it with Munki to all your clients.

Using munkipkg is easy. Create the folder using munkipkg

./munkipkg --create AppBlocker

munkipkg: Created new package project at AppBlocker

Then you fill the payload folders with those items you downloaded from the AppBlocker project. LauchD plist in the LaunchDaemons folder and AppBlocker.py in the “usr local bin” (create each nested folder).

AppBlocker-Munkipkg3.png

And finally create a post install script (no “.sh”) with the launchctl action to start your plist.

AppBlocker-Munkipkg4.png

Last but not least add this package to your Munki repo as an unattended managed install  that everyone gets. Of course, only do this after testing your package locally somewhere to verify that it works properly. Remember the saying: “You may not test very often, but when you do it’s always in production.” Be very careful with your testing but always automate all the things.

Updated after the initial blog post to explain how to add more than one app to block, and how to use osascript to determine the bundle identifier.

 

 

 

P5 on the Jellyfish: Archiving Gotchas

TL;DR

Using Archiware P5 to Archive files to tapes is awesome, but watch out for little things you might miss, such as the path to the files and backing up your Archive Db.

P5 Archive on the Jellyfish

Using P5 Archive with the Lumaforge Jellyfish is a great way to preserve your digital archives. See this post for how to set up P5 on the Jellyfish

Using Archiware P5 for archiving makes sense. You want your completed projects and original camera footage on LTO tape. But how do you do archives? There are several different ways, and there be gotchas.

P5 Archive vs P5 Archive app

Using P5 Archive to manually archive completed projects to LTO tape is a process of logging into the server via a web browser and selecting the the project folder you want to archive to tape.

The completed project folder could be on the storage visible to the server or it could be storage the client sees. And that can make a difference. Where the storage is mounted is different on a Mac vs Linux. Its’ the difference between “/Volumes” and “/mnt”.

The same Jellyfish storage, either SMB or NFS, when seen on a Mac is mounted by default at “/Volumes” (this can be changed but for most people leave it at the default). But when archiving the storage via a Jellyfish client you will get “/mnt” path.

p5-smb-test2.png

Using the P5 Archive app, which is a Mac only companion application to P5 Archive, to run the archives you will see the storage archived as “/Volumes”.

This first Archiving gotcha is if you’re archiving the Jellyfish storage with the web application of P5 Archive you will have to find your footage and restore from the “/mnt” path vs if you’re archiving from the P5 Archive app which is running from a Mac and will see and store the footage using the “/Volumes” path.

All this to say that using both ways to archive may double up your footage in your archive which may be unintended. And from a restore in the web browser finding your footage may be confusing if you’re used to seeing it mounted in “/Volumes” and you actually find it under “/mnt”.

Note: the reason to use the P5 Archive app is because of the simplicity of right-clicking files in the finder which are on your storage and telling them to archive right then and there. Files are copied to tape then the original files on the storage are replaced with stub files. Right-click again to restore. Simple.

p5-archive-app-job-monitor.png

Backup your Archive!

Don’t forget to backup your archives. Or rather, your archive Db. A more recent addition is the ability to automate the backups on the Archive index, so don’t forget to enable it.

In the managed index section, choose your Archive index.

Set the target client where the backups are going and the backup directory. Choose a time and don’t forget to enable it (check the checkbox and hit apply before closing the windows).

Note: Repeat this setup for each Archive index you want to backup.

Archive Backup db setup3.png

Monitoring your Archive!

Don’t forget to enable email notifications for your P5 server to get your inbox full of status notifications and errors and other important stuff. But if you want to cut down on email notifications or you have multiple P5 servers (many different clients, perhaps), then you might want to check out Watchman Monitoring and the P5 plugin that is built-in). Find out easily when your tape pools are getting low, the tape drives needs to be cleaned, the support maintenance needs renewing etc. All in one dashboard. How convenient!

Maybe everything is going well…

Watchman-P5-info.png

Or maybe not!

Archiware-P5-Jobs-Watchman-tapes-required.png

 

macOS Server is dead. Long live macOS.

Yes, it’s been a hot topic in the MacAdmin community both on Mac Enterprise list (oh no it’s the end of the world!) and MacAdmins Slack (told you it was coming, don’t be surprised).

My professional opinion is: “Don’t panic!”

My MacDevOps conference is all about supporting MacAdmins who have been writing code as infrastructure to manage Macs. And do it while replacing macOS Server in the server room with Linux and other OS.

Xsan is staying in macOS Server so I am happy and that’s my main use for the Mac Mini and macOS Server.

I have other Mac Minis doing file sharing for small work groups and moving that out of Server.app in the last revision was unfortunate (it is in the standard OS and usable there but less manageable). There’s also Synology and QNAP NAS for small workgroup file sharing and so much more And many enterprise storage vendors for larger setups.

Imaging has been dying a slow death for years and has been replaced with a thin or “no imaging” concept supported by tools such as AutoPkg and Munki.

Profile Manager is a demo version of MDM and should not be used to actually manage Macs.

Wikis, DNS and Mail should be hosted on Linux, in VMs, AWS, GCP or anywhere other than macOS Server so no problem.

Overall it might be disconcerting to some. But change is constant. And especially at Apple change comes fast and often. We have to get used to it.

Reference:

Apple Support article

Apple to Deprecate Many macOS Server Services – TidBITS http://tidbits.com/e/17760

Root Me Baby One More Time!

UPDATE: Apple has posted a security update. 2017-001

Root-a-pocalyse. Root down. Root a toot toot. Many funny tweets today about a very serious issue. A bug was discovered in macOS 10.13 that enabled anyone to login with a root account. With no password. Wow. Seriously. Yeah, that’s bad.

Bug discovered by Lemi Orhan Ergin.

I tested by clicking on the lock icon in System Preferences. Normally this requires an admin account. I was able to authenticate with “root” and no password. This actually also set root to no password. You can choose a password here and this makes it for you. How convenient. You can also login to the Mac via the login window. With root. And no password. Crazy.

If your Mac is off it’s safe. Not joking. If your FileVault protected drive is encrypted and your mac is turned off then you’re good. If you Mac is turned on and you’ve logged in at least once (or at least decrypted the drive on boot) then you’re not safe.

What can you do? Change the root password and set the shell to false. Until Apple fixes this. Should be anytime now. Or soon.

dscl . -passwd /Users/root “random or very secure password here”

dscl . -create /Users/root UserShell /usr/bin/false

Read a comprehensive explanation on Rich Trouton’s site:  Der Flounder blog

 

I don’t get High — Sierra!

Friends don’t let friends install macOS High Sierra in production. Don’t get High, Sierra.

macOS 10.13 was released on Sep 25, 2017, and almost two months later with only one point release update, it’s still too new for production. Download it on a test machine or two or more, test it with your apps and systems, file bug reports and radars, but for the love of all that is Python and Monty! don’t run it on your production Xsan. Well, at least not yet. Wait until next year. Or as long as you can. Or until the new iMac Pro is released with 10.13 pre-installed or wait until they ship the new Final Cut Pro X 10.4 that may or may not require macOS High Sierra.

With that out of the way, I’ve just upgraded the production Xsan to … macOS Sierra. Yes, macOS 10.12.6 is stable and it’s a good time to install last year’s macOS release. Time to say good bye to macOS el Capitan 10.11.6, we hardly knew ya. Besides guaranteed security updates, stability and the annoying newness of a changed macOS, what else is there? In Xsan v5 they introduced a new “ignore permissions” checkbox for your Xsan volumes. Looking forward to that feature in production. No more Munki onDemand nopkg scripts to run chmod. No more tech support requests for folders, files, FCP X projects that won’t open because someone else used it, owns it, touched it. We’ll see how that pans out. I’ll let you know.

Upgrading Xsan to v5

Step 1. Back up your data

You’re doing this, right? I’m using Archiware P5 Backup to backup the current projects to LTO tape. I’m using Archiware P5 sync to sync the current Xsan volumes to Thunderbolt RAIDs, and using Archiware P5 Archive (and Archive app) to archive completed projects to the LTO project archive. That’s all I need to do, right?

Step 2. Back up your servers

Don’t forget the servers running your SAN! I use Apple’s Time Machine to backup my Mac Mini Xsan controllers. External USB3 drive. I also use another Mac Mini in target disk mode with Carbon Copy Cloner to clone the server nightly. (Hat tip to Alex Narvey, a real Canadian hero). And of course I grab the Xsan config with hdiutil and all the logs with cvgather. Because, why not?! For Archiware P5 backup server I also have a python scripts to backup everything, another scripts to export a readable list of tapes, and BackupMinder to rotate the backups. Add some rsync scripts and you’re golden.

 

Step 3. Upgrade the OS

Unmount the Xsan volume on your clients or shut them down, disconnect the fibre channel. Do something like that. Stop your volume. Download the macOS Sierra installer from the App Store. Double click upgrade. Wait. Or use Munki. I loaded in the macOS 10.12.6 installer app into Munki and set it up as an optional install to make this portion of the upgrade much quicker and cleaner.

In my case after the OS was upgraded I checked the App Store app for any Apple updates (you can also use Munki’s Managed Software Center to check) and of course there were some security updates. In this case the security upgrade hung on a slow network connection and the server crashed. Server down! I had to restore from Time Machine backup to the point where I just upgraded the server. It took some extra time  but it worked (can’t wait for next year’s mature APFS / Time Machine and restoring from snapshots instead).

Step 4. Upgrade Server

After macOS is upgraded you’ll need to upgrade the Server.app or just upgrade the services used by Server (even those not used by Server get upgraded).

Step 5. Upgrade the Xsan

Bur first we have to restore the Xsan config. Don’t panic! It may invoke bad memories of data loss and restoring from backups. Xsan PTSD is real.

Restore-previous-Xsan.png

Step 6. Upgrade the rest

Next you have to upgrade the Xsan volumes.

Xsan-volume-needs-upgrade

New version of Xsan, ch-ch-changes! Ignore permissions check box will remount the xsan with the “no-owners” flag. Let’s test this out.

 

Upgrade the OS and Server app on the backup controller. Upgrade the OS on the clients using Munki or App Store if you like doing it the hard way. Ha Ha.

Step 7. Enjoy

Plug those Thunderbolt to Fibre adapters back in, mount those Xsan volumes and be happy.

Step 8. Wait for the complaints

The next day the editors walked in and went straight to work with Final Cut Pro X. No one noticed anything. Xsan upgraded. Workstation macOS upgraded. Everything appeared to be the same and just worked. Thankless task but well worth it.

 

Reference: Apple’s iBook guide here